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SAQA: General Education and Training Certificate (GETC)
« on: December 02, 2015, 06:50:29 PM »
Download a copy of this policy from the SAQA website:

http://saqa.org.za/docs/pol/2003/getc.pdf

General Education and Training Certificate (GETC)

The primary purpose of the GETC is to equip learners with the values, knowledge and skills that will enable or enhance meaningful participation in society, contribute towards developing sustainable communities, provide a basis for learning in further education and training, and establish a firm foundation for the assumption of a productive and responsible

role in the workplace.

POLICY DOCUMENT

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Date of publication: October 2001

ISBN: 0-620-28289-4

Funded by the European Union under the European Programme for Reconstruction and Development

CONTENTS

Executive summary                                                                             3

Introduction 5
Background to establishing the purpose, guiding principles
and criteria for the GETC                                                               5

Specific design challenges at the GETC level                                9
Requirements of the General Education and Training Certificate   9
Issues of implementation                                                             25
Conclusion                                                                                  27
Members of the GETC Stakeholder Forum                                   28

References                                                                                   29

Glossary                                                                                       30

Acronyms                                                                                     32

SAQA’s Mission

To ensure the development and implementation of a National Qualifications Framework which contributes to the full development of each learner and to the social and economic development of the nation at large.

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Executive summary

Requirements

Each full qualification registered at level 1 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) will be called a General Education and Training Certificate (GETC) and will conform to the broad require- ments recommended in this document.
2. Each GETC will provide access to various learning pathways, both ver- tical and horizontal, in terms of the purpose of the qualification. The scope of access provided by each GETC will be determined by the quali- fication
The primary purpose of the GETC is to equip learners with the values, knowledge and skills that will enable or enhance meaningful participa- tion in society, contribute towards developing sustainable communities, provide a basis for learning in further education and training, and esta- blish a firm foundation for the assumption of a productive and respon- sible role in the workplace.
A minimum of 120 credits is required for the GETC, of which at least
72 must be at NQF level 1.

The 20 compulsory credits in language and communication must be obtained at NQF level 1 in one of the 11 official South African lang- uages (Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, or isiZulu) or in one of the languages promoted by the Pan South African Language Board (the Khoi, Nama, and San languages, and sign language) in terms of the South African Constitution (Chapter 1, Section 6; RSA, 1996).
A further 20 credits in language and communication may be obtained in an additional official language enshrined in the South African Constitution (RSA, 1996) or in one of the languages promoted by the Pan South African Language Board (the Khoi, Nama, and San lang- uages, and sign language) in terms of the South African Constitution.
The 16 credits from the organisational field of mathematics and mathe- matical literacy must be obtained at NQF level 1.
The principle is accepted that proposers of a certain qualification can designate specific areas of study or credits as compulsory within that qualification, in addition to the fundamentals and in compliance with other GETC requirements and regulations as established by SAQA.
Proposers of qualifications must liaise with the Education and Training Quality Assurance bodies (ETQAs) which quality assure the learning programmes leading to the awarding of the GETC on the requirements for ensuring coherence of those qualifications.
A registered GETC can be a unit standards-based or non-unit standards- based qualification, in accordance with the requirements of the National Standards Bodies (NSB) regulations (8[4]). Unit and non-unit stan- dards-based GETCs should articulate on the basis of their exit-level out- comes.
1 Learners not meeting the requirements to be awarded the GETC must receive a statement of achievement, reflecting the credits obtained or outcomes achieved.
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Providers and ETQAs should engage with each other, with stakeholders in their sectors, and with SAQA on how best to maintain the integrity of the GETC beyond the requirement that the purpose of the qualification be achieved through appropriate incorporation of integrated assessment.
ETQAs and providers of learning programmes leading to the achieve- ment of the GETC should collaborate in formulating policies and devi- sing criteria that allow learners to achieve whole or part qualifications
through the recognition of prior learning.

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Introduction
T
he need for a document that provides a framework within which constructors of qualifications can design a GETC is indicated by:

Broad stakeholder demand for guidance in the development of the
GETC;

The difficulties which NSBs and Standards Generating Bodies
(SGBs) have experienced in conceptualising the qualification; and

The requirement for the registration of a coherent GETC on the
NQF.

This policy document outlines the context within which the GETC is located and discusses some of the difficulties associated with the design of the GETC. It addresses particular issues, which construc- tors of the GETC need to take into account, namely:

The purpose of the GETC;
Rules of combination;
The articulation of the GETC;
Progression and credit accumulation;
Integrated assessment; and
Recognition of prior learning (RPL).
The document outlines a number of requirements in addressing these issues. The final section highlights some of the issues that need to be taken into account during implementation of the requirements con- tained in section 4.

Background to establishing the purpose, guiding principles  and criteria  for the GETC
2.1  The legal responsibility of SAQA as per the SAQA Act

(Act No. 58 of 1995) (RSA, 1995)

The functions of the Authority as per the SAQA Act, No. 58 of 1995, are as follows:

The Authority shall:

Oversee the development of the NQF;
Formulate and publish policies and criteria for:
– The registration of bodies responsible for establishing education and training standards or qualifications;

– The  accreditation  of  bodies  responsible  for  monitoring  and auditing achievements in terms of such standards or qualifica- tions;

Oversee the implementation of the NQF including;
– Registration or accreditation of bodies referred to above and the assignment of functions to them;

In accordance with the Act and the regulations, SAQA, through the NSB- SGB structures, is responsible for the registration of qualifications.

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– The registration of national standards and qualifications;

– Steps to ensure compliance with provisions for accreditation;

and

– Steps to ensure that registered standards and qualifications are internationally comparable.

2.2  The Regulations for National Standards Bodies (NSBs) (RSA, 1998a) and for Education  and Training  Quality Assurance  Bodies  (ETQAs) (RSA, 1998b)

Among the functions of NSBs as listed in the regulations are that they:

Ensure that the work of SGBs meets the requirements for the regis- tration of standards and qualifications as determined by the Authority;
Recommend the registration  of  standards  on  the  NQF  to  the
Authority;

Recommend the registration of qualifications to the Authority;
Update and review qualifications; and
Liaise with ETQAs regarding the procedures for recommending new standards and qualifications, or amending registered stan- dards and qualifications.
Among the functions of ETQAs as listed in the regulations are that they:

Recommend new standards and qualifications to NSBs for con- sideration; or
Recommend modifications to existing standards or qualifications
to NSBs for consideration.

In the case of the GETC, there is likely to be a range of recommendations for such qualifications which cut across all NSBs and SGBs and

which attempt to fulfil a variety of needs within the education and training sector at these levels.

In accordance with the Act and the regulations, SAQA, through the NSB-SGB structures, is responsible for the registration of qualifica- tions. Furthermore the NSBs have the function of liaising with ETQAs regarding the procedures for recommending new standards and qualifications, or amending registered standards and qualifica- tions. ETQAs are responsible for assuring the quality of these quali- fications. Through liaison with the NSBs they have a direct role to play in recommending new standards and qualifications as well as modifications to existing standards and qualifications to NSBs for consideration. The ETQA structures are not legally in a position to assume responsibility for recommending standards and qualifications to SAQA, as this is clearly the responsibility of the NSB-SGB struc- tures.

2.3  The generalist qualifications

In the case of the GETC, there is likely to be a range of recommen- dations for such qualifications which cut across all NSBs and SGBs and which attempt to fulfil a variety of needs within the education and training sector at these levels. Provision includes formal schooling, Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET), out-of-school youth

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and the learners within learnerships and skills programmes of the

Department of Labour.

The NSB regulations provide general guidelines in respect of the structure of such qualifications. However, discussions conducted at the NSB level, indicated that further guidance and clarity was nee- ded.

In accordance with the regulations, NSBs are responsible for re- commending standards and qualifications to the Authority. However, as mentioned above, these qualifications cut across all NSB fields and across a variety of contexts of education provision. Since NSBs and SGBs in particular, are regarded as having sectoral interests, it has been suggested that they are inappropriate structures to make such recommendations. In view of the fact that SAQA has the responsibi- lity of developing the NQF, it is appropriate that SAQA oversees the development of the minimum requirements and guiding principles for

these generalist qualifications.

2.4  A discussion forum for the development of the purpose, guiding principles and guidelines for the GETC

If the NSB-SGB structures are deemed inappropriate for determining the parameters for the generalist qualifications, it is advisable that SAQA convene a forum to establish the basic principles and mini- mum requirements for the GETC and recommend these to the Authority for approval. Alternatively it should recommend a process whereby these principles and requirements can be established. Once approved at Authority level, NSBs will have to ensure that the stan- dards and qualifications at this level, which they recommend for registration, meet the requirements of the Authority.

Before the forum recommends the basic principles and minimum requirements to the Authority for final approval, there will need to be an engagement with all stakeholders, including the Inter-NSB Forum, and a public comment process.

2.5  The GETC Forum

An FETC/GETC forum was established and met on 12 May 2000. The original intention was that the forum would address both the Further Education and Training Certificate (FETC) and the GETC. This was not possible, resulting in the forum continuing with its work, but focusing on the FETC. The Authority adopted a FETC policy document in April 2001 after an extensive public comment process.

At the SAQA meeting of 16 August 2000 it was decided that a similar process should be followed to formulate a policy document for the GETC.

The following process was therefore recommended and followed:

The framework for submissions was established at a meeting held on 18 September 2000. Issues pertaining to the GETC that needed to be addressed in a policy document were discussed.
As SAQA has the responsibility of developing the NQF, it is appropriate that SAQA oversees the development of the minimum requirements and guiding principles for generalist qualifications.

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These discussions were synthesised into a document produced by SAQA staff. The document was e-mailed to all members of the forum before being distributed for comment. Once the comments were incorporated, the document was ready for distribution by 4
October 2000.

SAQA then called for submissions from major stakeholders. The closing date for initial submissions was 31 October 2000.
These submissions were considered in drafting a discussion docu- ment for tabling to the GETC Forum, which met on 20 November
2000.

A discussion document was submitted to the SAQA meeting held on 6 December 2000. The document was accepted by SAQA as a basis for the  wide  consultation  process.  The  public  comment phase was extended beyond the initial deadline of 15 March 2001 to allow for further input into the process.
After this extended public comment phase the stakeholder forum met again on 19 July 2001 to discuss public comment received and to reach consensus on the changes made to the final document presented to the SAQA Executive Committee on 25 July 2001.
It was envisaged  that  the  GETC  policy  document  would  be
finalised at the SAQA meeting of 15 August 2001.

While SAQA is primarily concerned that the achievement of a qualification constitutes a statement of competence in a particular field, it cannot ignore the dimension of sectoral

difference in the design of qualifications, particularly where two such sectors are differentiated on the basis of age.

2.6  Submissions to the GETC

The following submissions to the GETC received at the SAQA Office by 31 October 2000 – including submissions that were not in response to the Document for Submissions: GETC distributed in the wake of the 18 September 2000 meeting of the GETC Forum but which had been received at the SAQA Office prior to that date – have been taken into account in compiling their policy document:

Department of Education:  “Proposal  to  HEDCOM  on:  The
General  Education  and  Training  Certificate”  (received  18

September 2000) (Department of Education, 2000b);

Interim ABET Advisory Board (IAAB):  “GETC  Proposal  for
ABET” (received 31 May 2000) (IAAB, 1999);

IAAB: “GETC Discussion:  Comments  from  the  IAAB,  31
October 2000” (received 31 October 2000) (IAAB, 2000); and

SAFCERT: Submission on SAQA’s “Document for Submissions: GETC” (31 October 2000).
2.7  Public comment on the GETC discussion document

Comments on the GETC discussion document were received from a wide range of stakeholders. These included the university sector, COSATU, the Chamber of Mines, Department of Education (from national and provincial departments), Department of Labour, the organised teaching profession, SAFCERT and individuals.

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Specific design challenges at the GETC
level

The challenges facing the designers of a framework for the GETC are a function of the complexity of cross-cutting factors that need to be taken into account. The three-dimensional matrix comprises:

An age continuum (from children to adult learners);
A site-of-learning differentiation (from classroom to factory floor to workplace learning centre to community centre); and
A time-of-learning dichotomy (daylight-based versus night-based learning).
Furthermore the approach and the nature of the learning programmes will differ substantially from group to group. This has raised the ques- tion as to what the term “general” means when referring to a qualifi- cation at NQF level 1: “general” in the context of children is quite dif- ferent from “general” in the context of adults, for example.

While SAQA is primarily concerned that the achievement of a qualification constitutes a statement of competence in a particular field, it cannot ignore the dimension of sectoral difference in the design of qualifications, particularly where two such sectors are dif- ferentiated on the basis of age (children versus adults). Learning to count as a child in a schooling environment, for example, is very dif- ferent from learning to count as an adult in an ABET environment. Since competence is achieved within the learning context of a sector competence and sector should therefore be held in tension.

Currently there is no formal certification for any of these sectors at this level. The education and training system is not geared towards a large-scale assessment or certification at level 1 of the NQF.

There are political implications if a system of formal assessment is put in place and achievement levels are low. Furthermore, there are huge cost implications should assessment at this level be on the scale currently conducted at the Senior Certificate level.

Moreover, there is an imperative to bring the marginalised ABET sector into the mainstream by creating appropriate articulation with formal education provision so that learners can have access and mobility within the education and training system through recogni- tion of their achievements.

Requirements of the GETC
There is an imperative to bring the marginalised ABET sector into the mainstream by creating appropriate articulation with formal education provision so that learners can have access and mobility within the education and training system through recognition of their achievements.

Requirement 1

Each full qualification registered at level 1 on the NQF will be called a General Education and Training Certificate (GETC) and will conform to the broad requirements recommended in this document.

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Requirement 2

Each GETC will provide access to various learning pathways, both vertical and hori- zontal, in terms of the purpose of the qualification. The scope of access provided by each GETC will be determined by the qualification itself.

The primary reason for including the requirement that 20 credits of a GETC qualification be from the field of language and communication and 16 credits be from the field of

mathematics (including numeracy) is an attempt to bring some coherence to the qualification.

4.1  SAQA’s definition of a qualification

The NSB regulations in section 8 define a qualification as follows:

8(1) A qualification shall:

Represent a planned combination of learning outcomes which has a defined purpose or purposes, and which is intended to provide qualifying learners with applied competence and a basis for fur- ther learning;
Add value to the qualifying learner in terms of enrichment of the person through the:
– provision of status, recognition, credentials and licensing;

– enhancement of marketability and employability; and

– opening-up of access routes to additional education and training;

Provide benefits to society and the economy through enhancing citizenship, increasing social and economic productivity, provi- ding specifically skilled/professional people and transforming and redressing legacies of inequity;
Comply with the objectives of the NQF contained in section 2 of the SAQA Act;
Have both specific and critical cross-field outcomes which pro- mote life-long learning;
Where applicable, be internationally comparable;
Incorporate integrated assessment appropriately to ensure that the purpose of the qualification is achieved, and such assessment shall use a range of formative and summative assessment such as port- folios, simulations, workplace assessments, written and oral examinations; and
Indicate in the rules governing the award of the qualification that the qualification may be achieved in whole or in part through the recognition of prior learning, which concept includes but is not limited to learning outcomes achieved through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.
The following paragraphs from section 9 of the NSB regulations give further definition to a qualification at NQF level 1 and begin to address the question of basic criteria for the registration of such a qualification. a. A minimum of 72 credits is required at or above the level at which the certificate is awarded, which shall consist of fundamental learning, of which at least 20 credits shall be from the field of communication studies and language, and in addition at least 16 credits  shall  be  from  the  sub-field  of  mathematics  including

numeracy in the case of certificates at level 1.

b.A minimum of 36 credits at level 1 and 52 at levels 2 to 4 which shall be divided between the core and elective categories, with

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each qualification specifying the distribution of credits required in these categories, provided that the range of additional credits shall be broad enough to enable learners to pursue some of their own learning interests.

By the year 2002, at least 16 of the 52 credits for certificates at levels 2 to 4 shall be from the sub-fields focusing on mathematics
literacy.

The primary reason for including the requirement that 20 credits of a GETC qualification be from the field of language and communication and 16 credits be from the field of mathematics (including numeracy) is an attempt to bring some coherence to the qualification. There is a danger that because of the variety of learning sectors at this level, there will be a variety of different qualifications that, if they are not perceived to be of a comparable value within society, will serve to hinder progression, access, mobility and articulation rather than pro- mote it.

The danger does exist, on the one hand, that an attempt to create coherence will result in the compulsory requirements for NQF level

1 qualifications becoming too prescriptive, thereby creating artificial barriers to progression – as is the case with the Senior Certificate with matriculation endorsement. Too much flexibility, on the other hand, inevitably results in social judgements about the “exchange” value of certain qualifications and ultimately prejudices the learners who hold the qualification.

4.2  The purpose of the GETC

Considering that learning sectors at NQF level 1 differ extensively, it has been suggested that effectively there is no single overriding or primary purpose for qualifications at NQF level 1, as is the case with the FETC (SAQA, 2001). The argument is based on the fact that the first exit point for compulsory education – that is, the end of founda- tional education for children – occurs at this level. Hence it is con- sidered inappropriate to issue a GETC because training per se is not part of the purpose of a child’s learning at this stage. However, for adults in the workplace, the argument is that the GETC is primarily geared towards gaining the fundamental skills needed to perform effectively  within  the  workplace.  In  this  context,  it  may  not  be suitable to refer to foundational education.

This viewpoint has raised a number of issues:

Do all qualifications at this level have a primary purpose? The purpose of particular qualifications designed for a particular pur- pose within the primary purpose, may be added as an overlay to the primary purpose. This is the position in respect of the FETC.
If there are different purposes of each full qualification registered at level 1 on the NQF, should each qualification conform to the same broad requirements beyond that which is proposed in the
NSB regulations?

It has been suggested that effectively there is no single overriding or primary purpose for qualifications at NQF level 1, as is the case with the FETC.

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Integration is a bringing together or merging of the knowledge, skills and values in a learning area necessary for the demonstration of applied competence.

Should all qualifications at this level be called a GETC (as is the case with all qualifications at level 4 being called a FETC)? Is there an argument to be made for a GEC and a GETC?
What impact will this have on access, progression and articula- tion? This is the major point of discussion in respect of different qualifications at the same level. What is the social value attached to them?
4.2.1   The GETC and  integration

A useful starting point in addressing these questions, is to consider the meaning of “integration” in the context of the NQF. There are two ways of looking at integration. The first takes its cue from the first objective of the NQF, which speaks of creating an “integrated national framework for learning achievements” (RSA, 1995). According to this conception, integration does not necessarily imply a blurring of the distinctions between education and training. Formal schooling therefore, will inevitably be education-orientated and focus on knowledge acquisition and production, while industry learning will inevitably be training-oriented, focusing on skills acquisition and performance. An integrated framework provides for and promotes the co-existence on a single framework of qualifications, which articulate with one another. In other words, it allows for movement from one orientation to the other in a relatively seamless way. Taken to extremes, however, this might imply a perpetuation of the divisions between education and training.

The second way of interpreting integration, is to see it as a bring- ing together or merging of the knowledge, skills and values in a learning area necessary for the demonstration of applied compe- tence. In other words, education’s traditional emphasis on know- ledge acquisition and production needs to be counterbalanced by an emphasis on the acquisition and demonstration of skills. Similarly, training’s traditional emphasis on the acquisition and demonstration of skills needs to be counterbalanced by an emphasis on knowledge acquisition and production. An overlay of values therefore needs to characterise this amalgam of education and training. Taken to extremes, however, this might imply a homogenisation that fails to recognise the traditional strengths of particular educational or training foci.

These two concepts are not mutually exclusive, however. The NQF is a framework, which brings the two together in a manner that does not perpetuate extremism but promotes balance. Simultaneously, it recognises the particular orientations of particular qualifications. It would therefore be counterproductive, in terms of the second interpretation of integration above, to perpetuate extre- mism by registering, for example, a GEC (General Education Certificate) for the formal schooling sector, a GTC (General Training Certificate) for the industrial sector, and a GETC for the ABET sec- tor. Whatever the orientation of any of these sectors’ qualifications, it is important to register a GETC across the board, if equivalence is to be promoted among qualifications at level 1 of the NQF.

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4.2.2   A GETC typology

A consideration of the types of GETC that have been proposed by dif- ferent sectors operating at NQF level 1 – in other words, what “GETC” means in different education and training contexts – will assist us in determining equivalence at this level.

4.2.2.1 Interim  ABET Advisory  Board: ABET GETC

The IAAB has indicated (1999) that the GETC for the ABET sector will be a unit standards-based qualification, based on a combination of the Department of Education’s eight learning areas and the 12 organising fields of the NQF (including electives developed for ABET), whose 120 credits learners obtain throughout the duration of the learning programme(s) leading to the achievement of the qualifi- cation.

The GETC structure diagram (1999: 5) indicates that:

The fundamental learning component will comprise a total of 36 credits in language, literacy and communication and in mathema- tics and mathematical literacy;
That the core learning component will comprise a total of 54 cre- dits spread across a minimum of four of the remaining six learn- ing areas; and
That the elective learning component will comprise a total of 30 credits assigned to unit standards from any of the 12 organising fields of the NQF, including electives developed or proposed for ABET (agriculture and agricultural technology; arts and culture; economic and management sciences; small medium and micro enterprises [SMME]; technology; food and fibre processing; human and social sciences; health care; natural sciences; mathe- matics; and hospitality and tourism).
4.2.2.2 Department of Education: Schooling GETC

The Department of Education (2000b: 1-2) has indicated that the GETC for the formal schooling sector will be a “whole” qualification, based on the eight learning areas and 66 specific outcomes, whose

120 credits learners achieve between Grade 7 and Grade 9 but are awarded only in Grade 9. The credit allocation table (2000: 4) seems to suggest that:

The fundamental learning component will comprise a total of 36 credits in communication and mathematics;
That the core learning component will comprise a total of 60 cre- dits spread across the remaining six learning areas (10 credits in life orientation are compulsory; human and social sciences; eco- nomic and management sciences; natural sciences; arts and cul- ture; and technology); and
That the elective learning component will comprise a total of 24 credits differentially spread across the eight learning areas. Expected levels of performance (ELPs), which are clusters of spe- cific outcomes, will form a key element in determining progres-
sion and credit accumulation since they serve as standards.

The NQF is a framework, which brings together education and training in a manner that does not perpetuate extremism, but promotes balance.

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4.2.2.3 Industry-specific GETC

The initial IAAB proposal for an ABET GETC addresses the issue (1999: 9) of a possible tension between a General Education and Training Certificate and an industry-specific qualification, which by virtue of its level of specialisation may not be a GETC at all. The essential question is whether one can call a qualification whose only apparent claim to being general rests on the inclusion of communica- tion and mathematics in its fundamental learning component a GETC? Can one, for example, then have a “GETC in baking” of which the core and elective components are exclusively baking-oriented?

4.2.3 From typology to purpose

This brief look at typology suggests three different orientations of

GETC:

For the ABET sector, a unit standards-based whole qualification based on coverage of a combination of the eight Department of Education learning areas and the 12 NQF organising fields of which the orientation is towards education and training;
For the formal schooling sector, a “whole” qualification based on coverage of the eight learning areas of which the orientation is towards education; and
For the industrial sector, a unit standards-based or “whole” quali- fication (the sector has not specified) whose orientation is towards
training.

The Department of Education has indicated that the GETC for the formal schooling sector will be a “whole” qualification, based on the eight learning areas and 66 specific

outcomes, whose 120 credits learners achieve between Grade 7 and Grade 9 but are awarded only in Grade 9.

The three issues, which coalesce in this discussion about the purpose of the GETC are:

The meaning of “General” in “General Education and Training
Certificate”;

The integration of education and training in the GETC; and
The articulation of GETCs in different sectors at level 1 of the
NQF.

The discussion thus far suggests that the GETC registered on the NQF needs to be general, it needs to integrate education and training, and it needs to articulate the different needs outlined above. But how does one ensure that all three strands pertain?

Some attempt has been made in section 4.2.1 above to outline the parameters for integration. The conclusion drawn is that, if equiva- lence is to be promoted among qualifications at NQF level 1, not GECs, not GTCs, but one GETC must be registered for all strands across the board. This means that not only must all qualifications at level 1 focus on the attainment and assessment of applied compe- tence, but that in terms of their field coverage they must ensure ade- quate preparation for further learning and provide for the assumption of a productive role in the workplace. In this regard, the eight lear- ning area overlap between the proposed ABET and schooling learn- ing programmes culminating in a GETC is a positive development.

The argument for the registration of a GETC for all sectors involved in the provision of education and training at level 1 of the

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NQF is clearly linked to the notion of the purpose of the qualification. In fact, it largely answers the questions posed in the first two bullet points in section 4.2 above. If a GETC can be registered across the board, then sectoral differences are not as important as might be sup- posed.

It might be argued that the description of the purpose of a GETC for ABET as contained in the initial IAAB submission (IAAB, 1999), holds true not only for the ABET sector but for all sectors operating at level 1 of the NQF. The following extracts from the document make the point:

The [GETC] provides formal recognition that persons have the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes needed to perform the parti- cular roles – related to the purpose – according to the standards and levels of complexity required by our society (1999: 1-2).

ABET introduces citizens to a culture of learning and provides them with the foundations for acquiring the knowledge and skills need- ed for social and economic development, justice and equality. It also provides access to further and higher education, training and employ- ment (Department of Education, 1997; cited in IAAB, 1999: 2).

The document goes on to claim four broad purposes for a GETC:

Political: for informed participation in a democracy;
Social: for active involvement in community contexts;
Personal: for empowerment, self-confidence and linkage to cul- tural capital; and
Economic: for economic growth, in terms of providing a founda- tion for the acquisition of knowledge and skills needed for the world of work (1999: 3; emphasis added).
Together these “purposes” constitute the general foundation for the future development of the child, adolescent or adult. The degree to which the learner embraces them will depend on the specific purpose of the qualification and the particular orientation of the learner. For example, as the second IAAB submission put it (2000: 1), the ABET GETC by virtue of being an adult learner qualification has to serve many purposes, such as enabling learners to progress into the FET band, constituting an exit qualification and a first recognised qualifi- cation providing access to learnerships and work-related skills.

To encapsulate the above:

There is a primary purpose for the GETC across all sectors;
The GETC constitutes a general education and training and pre- pares learners both for further learning and, whether immediately or in the longer term (directly or indirectly) for the world of work1; and
ABET introduces citizens to a culture of learning and provides them with the foundations for acquiring the knowledge and skills needed for social and economic development, justice and equality. It also provides access to further and higher

education, training and employment.

1     The SAFCERT submission (SAFCERT, 2000: 9) points to the importance of the GETC preparing school-based learners to join the world of work should they not wish to pursue school-based learning beyond the GETC.

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Notwithstanding its particular orientation, no GETC should focus on one “stream” (education versus training; academic versus vocational) at the expense of the other.
At this point a statement of purpose for the GETC may be formulated as follows:

Requirement 3

The primary purpose of the GETC is to equip learners with the values, knowledge and skills  that  will  enable  or  enhance meaningful  participation  in  society,  contribute towards developing sustainable communities, provide a basis for learning in further education and training, and establish a firm foundation for the assumption of a pro- ductive and responsible role in the workplace.

The GETC should ensure that learners have the competencies to engage in further learning while at the same time providing access to the FET band as well as according recognition to prior learning.

This recommendation addresses the issue of the integration of educa- tion and training and through its statement of a trifocal purpose for the GETC attempts to delimit the meaning of General in General Education and Training. However, the question of whether it provides sufficiently clear guidelines on the meaning of general in specific design contexts requires further exploration.

One conception is that the NQF should be able to accommodate qualifications that are very general (at one end of the continuum) and very specific (at the other end of the continuum). Another conception is that in order to be called a General Education and Training Certificate, a GETC must be general enough to provide learners with a general education and training, yet specific enough to satisfy the needs of a particular sector. The former approach allows for maxi- mum flexibility, yet a possibility of over-specialisation of a General Education and Training Certificate and concomitant failure of the qualification to provide an adequate preparation for movement into the FET band. The latter allows for an apparent balance between over-generalisation and over-specialisation, yet is prescriptive and therefore potentially restrictive. If constructors are given free reign to develop GETCs that serve their needs, questions may arise regarding the articulation between (for example) specialised industry-based and general schooling qualifications, or around how their relative values are perceived. Perhaps a first round of GETC registration and provi- sion of learning programmes leading to the achievement of such qualifications will help illuminate future approaches.

The GETC should ensure that learners have the competencies to engage in further learning while at the same time providing access to the FET band as well as according recognition to prior learning.

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4.3  Rules of combination

4.3.1 Minimum credits at level 1

The same problem identified in the FETC Policy Document (SAQA,

2001) exists at this level. In terms of the NSB regulations, the require- ments that must be fulfilled by a learner before an NQF level 1 quali- fication can be awarded, are as follows:

120 credits, of which 72 must be at level 1 or above; and
Of these 72 credits, 20 credits must be in language and communi- cation, and 16 must be in mathematics.
The gap in the regulations is evident: in the case of the 48 credits that do not need to be at level 1 or above, what is their minimum level (since the first NQF level is level 1)?

As indicated above (section 4.2.2.2), the Department of Education (2000b) has proposed that in the case of the schooling sec- tor GETC all 120 credits will be at level 1 of the NQF. This is per- fectly  acceptable,  since  the  NSB  regulations  specify  (regulation

9[1][a]; RSA, 1998a) that a minimum of 72 credits need to be at or above the level at which the qualification is pegged. In the case of the ABET sector, however, the existence of three sub-levels below level

1 of the NQF allows one to assign 48 of the 120 credits at ABET level

Indeed, this is the proposal made by the ABET sector. Equivalence of these two types of qualification, then, is determined at the final exit level of the qualification – on the achievement of the 120 credits.
The critical cross-field outcomes should be used as the primary measuring stick in the fundamental areas of learning to assess the attainment of the purpose of the qualification.

Requirement 4

A minimum of 120 credits is required for the GETC, of which at least 72 must be at

NQF level 1.

4.3.2  The fundamental learning component of the GETC

The questions about the fundamental learning requirements are simi- lar to those of the FETC. It is important to emphasize that these two areas of learning provide the key to further learning and hence the complexity and choices of standards are crucial. These have to relate to the purpose of the qualification. The critical cross-field outcomes should be used as the primary measuring stick in the fundamental areas of learning to assess the attainment of the purpose of the quali- fication. This will also determine whether the skills in these areas can be applied in the general arena of the qualification.

The question then arises as to the degree of coherence that should be prescribed or the amount of learning that must be common for all learners in the GET band to ensure that progress to further learning is possible within the variety of contexts. The structure and rules of combination for qualifications at this level therefore become crucial in  ensuring  that  no  barriers  to  accessing  further  education  and training are created. The role of the critical outcomes and their rela-

tionship to the purpose of the qualification is also crucial. Likewise,

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the role of the compulsory credits in language and communication and in mathematics is important.

4.3.2.1 Language and communication

Given the importance of language in the development of thinking skills and the necessity for aligning language study with the medium of instruction of further study – a point forcefully made in the SAFCERT submission (2000: 8) – the requirement for NQF level 1 qualifications in respect of the 20 credits for language and communi- cation could be as follows:

Requirement 5

The 20 compulsory credits in language and communication must be obtained at NQF level 1 in one of the 11 official South African languages (Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, or isiZulu) or in one of the languages promoted by the Pan South African Language Board (the Khoi, Nama, and San languages, and sign language) in terms of the South African Constitution (Chapter 1, Section 6; RSA, 1996).

The GETC forum opined that the best way to promote multilingualism among adults, was not to rigidly specify the required number of credits, but to allow the constituency to decide on this issue, given the fact that

most adults are able to communicate in more than one language.

The learning outcomes and associated assessment criteria at level 1 must be of the standard required by a learner to participate effective- ly at an institution for further education and training. An appropriate SGB has already been established to determine these learning out- comes and assessment criteria. The work of this SGB would clearly have to take into account the particular needs of all stakeholders in the GET band. The varied nature of learners in this band is a pertinent issue in terms of the study of language. Care must be taken to ensure that there is no duplication of the work and that a single coherent sys- tem is created in respect of the fundamental learning standards.

The issues about the study of language in a multilingual society, which includes the question of language of instruction and language usage in the workplace, are discussed in the FETC Policy Document (SAQA, 2001). The FETC requirements, include a proposal that a further 20 credits in language and communication must be obtained in a second official language at a minimum of NQF level 3. This is included to address the need to develop citizens who can participate effectively in a multilingual society. The questions that could be asked in the context of the GETC are:

Is a requirement in respect of a second language appropriate for
NQF level 1?

The requirement for the FETC pitches the level of proficiency in the second language at NQF level 3. At what level would it be pitched for qualifications at NQF level 1?
The GETC forum felt that for adults the best way to promote multi- lingualism was not to rigidly specify the required number of credits, but to allow the constituency to decide on this issue, given the fact that most adults are able to communicate in more than one language.

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To address the need to develop citizens who can participate effec- tively in a multilingual society the following is proposed:

Requirement 6

A further 20 credits in language and communication may be obtained in an additional official language enshrined in the South African Constitution (RSA, 1996) or in one of the languages promoted by the Pan South African Language Board (the Khoi, Nama, and San languages, and sign language) in terms of the South African Constitution.

In the light of the abovementioned language requirements, the vari- ous sectors or streams need to specify their particular needs.

4.3.2.2 Mathematics (including numeracy)

Given the legacy on the medium of instruction that still haunts South Africa and the fact that English, the language of international com- munication, is not the first language of the vast majority of South Africans, the rationale for the inclusion of communication and lan- guage within the fundamental learning component of level 1 to 4 qualifications is not difficult to understand. Less accessible is the rea- son for including mathematics in the fundamental component. This is notwithstanding the arguments for the need to produce numerate citi- zens who can, at worst, “get by” in banks, shops, and casinos. Not surprisingly, the SAFCERT submission (2000) devotes much discus- sion to the issue of the type of mathematical literacy that will com- prise the fundamental learning component of the GETC, making the point that “to enforce mathematical literacy in the ‘general’ sense … (mathematics as a subject) may have the unintended consequence of many learners deciding not to enter the stream of lifelong learning” (2000: 7). Consultations on the most appropriate type of mathemati- cal literacy for the GETC will therefore be required. An SGB for mathematical literacy has been established to this end and is con- sidering the proposals as well as the needs already expressed by various sectors.

The following questions throw some of the issues into relief:

16 credits in mathematics including numeracy must be obtained. Should all learners who achieve a level 1 qualification have achieved the same learning outcomes to be credited with the mini- mum compulsory 16 credits? Or could different candidates have achieved different outcomes?
The credits could be achieved in different areas of study, but would the outcomes be the same?
The intention behind the inclusion of language and communication and of mathematical literacy in the fundamental component is not to limit access, but to provide a foundation for further learning and to enable the effective participation of literate and numerate citizens in society. This said, it should be possible to achieve the outcomes in a

The intention behind the inclusion of language and communication and of mathematical literacy in the fundamental component is not to limit access, but to provide a foundation

for further learning and to enable the effective participation of literate and numerate citizens in society.

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In some qualifications it may not be very easy to determine what constitutes core learning as opposed to elective learning, while in other qualifications the core learning will dominate the

necessary credits by virtue of the purpose of the qualification.

variety of learning contexts so that the emphasis is not on the study of concepts in the abstract or more specifically on mathematics as a subject. Moreover, if one is to obtain a measure of equivalence between, for instance, mathematics for school children and mathe- matics for factory workers, there needs to be a measure of accommo- dation of academically-oriented mathematics within the industry con- text and of industry-oriented mathematics within the schooling con- text for the primary purpose of not compromising the GETC.

In this regard, an appropriate SGB would need to be established to determine level 1 learning outcomes and assessment criteria. Furthermore, there are SGBs that are working on standards in these areas or SGBs that are in the process of formation. Care must be taken to ensure that there is no duplication of the work and that a sin- gle coherent system is created in respect of fundamental learning standards. Moreover, in the development of the fundamental mathe- matics standards from GETC to FETC, attention must be given to ensuring that there are no critical gaps and that progression is logical

from one level to the next. For this reason, it is recommended that:

Requirement 7

The 16 credits from the organisational field of mathematics and mathematical literacy must be obtained at NQF level 1.

4.3.3  Core and elective learning

Paragraph 9(b) of the NSB regulations discusses the question of core and elective learning:

A minimum of 36 (thirty-six) credits at level 1 … which shall be divided between the core and elective categories, with each quali- fication specifying the distribution of credits required in these categories: Provided that the range of additional credits shall be broad enough to enable learners to pursue some of their own learning interests.

It is unlikely that any blanket ruling on the division of credits across these two categories will serve any positive purpose. The reason for this is that the different purposes of qualifications should ultimately determine the ratio of core and elective learning. In some qualifica- tions it may not be very easy to determine what constitutes core learn- ing as opposed to elective learning, while in other qualifications the core learning will dominate the necessary credits by virtue of the pur- pose of the qualification. The determination of what constitutes core learning for a qualification and what the elective options are should rest with the proposers of the qualification.

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Requirement 8

The principle is accepted that proposers of a certain qualification can designate spe- cific areas of study or credits as compulsory within that qualification, in addition to the fundamentals and in compliance with other GETC requirements and regulations as established by SAQA.

4.3.4 Additional rules of combination

In a system of credit accumulation there is a danger that credits are accumulated separately from a number of different providers over a period of time and that in that process, the overall purpose of the qualification has been lost, even though the learner has accumulated all the parts. HET practice requires learners to complete a certain per- centage of the qualification requirements or aspects of the qualifica- tion within the institution before the qualification is awarded and only a limited number of courses from other institutions is taken into con- sideration.

In the case of the Senior Certificate with Endorsement, there are minimum requirements for the number of subjects that must be offered and passed at one sitting of the examination – the group examination concept. These requirements are attempts at ensuring coherence within the qualification. This issue needs consideration and guidance on how and where the concerns around the “shopping basket” accumulation of credits can be addressed, and is alluded to in the context of integrated assessment and RPL below.

In an attempt at ensuring coherence, it may be apposite to advise

the following requirement:

In a system of credit accumulation there is a danger that credits are accumulated

separately from a number of different providers over a period of time and that in that process, the overall purpose of the qualification is lost.

Requirement 9

Proposers of qualifications must liaise with  the ETQAs which quality assure the learning programmes leading to the awarding of the GETC on the requirements for ensuring coherence of those qualifications.

4.4  The articulation of whole qualifications based on unit standards and whole qualifications not based on unit standards at level 1 of the NQF

According to the NSB regulations (8[4]), a registered qualification at NQF level 1, or indeed at any level on the NQF, may be constructed from unit standards or it may be registered as a “whole” qualification

– that is, not constructed from unit standards. The use of the term “whole qualification” in the regulations is ambiguous as it may be construed to imply that a non-unit standards-based qualification is in some way less than whole. Others have differentiated the two on the basis of exit-level outcomes, “whole qualifications” being based on

exit-level outcomes rather than unit standards. Even this is a miscon-

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ception, since both unit standards-based and non-unit standards- based qualifications are required to stipulate the exit-level outcomes that learners need to demonstrate towards achievement of the qualifi- cation (NSB regulations 5[1][b & c]).

This last point in fact assists us in solving the difficulty of articu- lation and equivalence between unit standards-based and non-unit standards-based qualifications. Short of insisting that all qualifica- tions should be unit standards-based – as the SAFCERT submission suggests doing (2000: 9) – one way of demonstrating equivalence is to make articulation hinge on the common denominator, namely exit- level outcomes. Thus, since the formal schooling certificate is likely to be a “whole qualification”, a comparison of the schooling GETC and the ABET GETC, for example, can be made on the basis of their respective exit-level outcomes.

This does not, however, preclude the articulation of unit stan- dards-based qualifications on the basis of unit standards, specific out- comes, or even level.

The following requirement is therefore included:

Requirement 10

A registered GETC can be a unit standards-based  or a non-unit  standards-based qualification, in accordance with the requirements of the NSB regulations (8[4]). Unit and non-unit standards-based GETCs should articulate on the basis of their exit-level outcomes.

It may be necessary for SAQA to take a principled stand that progression within a band may be on the basis of accumulation of credits as determined by the providers within a band.

4.5  Progression from GET to FET and credit  accumulation

The issue of progression from GET to FET and credit accumulation is discussed to some extent in the FETC Policy Document. The Department of Education FET Curriculum Discussion Document (Department of Education, 2000a: 19) appears to support the notion that a learner may accumulate credits, but should certain credits not have been achieved, the learner may enrol concurrently for credits at level 2 and at level 3, for example. In the same document (2000a: 31) the following statement is made: “After a learner has obtained the FETC, s/he can proceed towards the achievement of outcomes lead- ing to a certificate or diploma at level 5, subject to HE (or Higher Education) admission requirements.” This policy reflects the process currently followed in higher education and indicates a shift from past practice.

It may be necessary for SAQA to take a principled stand that progression within a band may be on the basis of accumulation of credits as determined by the providers within a band. However, progression between bands must be based on the achievement of critical qualifications: for example, progress from ABET to enrolment for a qualification in the Further Education and Training Band requires the achievement of a GETC; progress from study at

level 3 and below to a qualification in the Higher Education and

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Training Band requires the achievement of a FETC. Alternatively, proposers of qualifications may be asked to indicate the conditions in terms of which progress to a qualification at a level in the next band is granted, although the danger exists that this flexibility may ultimately undermine the credibility and coherence of the NQF itself.

The question is how to balance progression and access. There is a need to balance flexibility with rationality in the system so that it is possible for institutions to manage learning in a coherent manner. The real challenge may well be to ensure that institutions are sufficiently flexible.

The Department of Education FET Curriculum Discussion Document (2000a) suggests that credit accumulation at levels 2 and 3 will be acknowledged by issuing credit-based certificates when the minimum compulsory credits have been attained. The accumulated credits will be captured on SAQA’s National Learners’ Record Database (NLRD). This process motivates learners by accrediting achievement as it occurs.

Certain other proposers of qualifications that span more than one level are experimenting with the concept of designing the qualifica- tion in such a way that credit-based certificates can be issued along the way as the necessary credits are achieved.

It has been argued forcefully in the FETC Policy Document that the underlying principle in the design of an NQF level 4 qualification must be that the qualifying learner has the learning assumed to be in place to embark upon the study of qualifications at a higher level and that through the acquisition of the NQF level 4 qualification a viable learning pathway is created. This underpins the concept that qualifi- cation design must favour the principle of “dove-tailing”: exiting from one qualification must lead directly to entry to one or more qualifications at the same or higher level of the NQF. This principle

should be adopted in the case of qualifications at NQF level 1.

There is a need to balance flexibility with rationality in the system so that it is

possible for institutions to manage learning in a

coherent manner.

Requirement 11

Learners not meeting the requirements to be awarded the GETC must receive a state- ment of achievement, reflecting the credits obtained or outcomes achieved.

4.6  Integrated assessment

The  NSB  regulations  require  that  the  proposers  of  qualifications address the notion of integrated assessment in their submissions.

Integrated assessment needs to be incorporated appropriately to ensure that the purpose of the qualification is achieved. Such assess- ment should use a range of formative and summative assessment such as portfolios, simulations, workplace assessments and also written and oral examinations (regulation 8[1][g]; RSA, 1998a).

One of the problems facing the system is that previously there was  no  formally  recognised  qualification  at  NQF  level  1.  Some

would argue that even current discussions do not indicate a single

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clear purpose for a qualification at this level. Furthermore, the prob- lem with a system that encourages the achievement of a qualification through credit accumulation, is that a learner may achieve the required number of credits in the relevant areas of study – credits earned over a period of time – at different learning sites and through different assessment modes or perhaps even through RPL. Because of the possible fragmented nature of the learning and assessment, there is no guarantee that the overall purpose of the qualification has been achieved.

The issue of integrated assessment is addressed in the SAQA pub- lication Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF Registered Unit Standards and Qualifications (SAQA, 1999). This is a complex con- cept, and engagement with it by practitioners will encourage further

development and debate.

Requirement 12

Providers and ETQAs should engage with each other, with stakeholders in their sec- tors, and with SAQA on how best to maintain the integrity of the GETC beyond the requirement that the purpose of the qualification be achieved through appropriate incorporation of integrated assessment.

4.7  Recognition of prior learning (RPL)

The NSB regulations stipulate that proposers of qualifications at level

1 of the NQF must, in their submissions, indicate in the rules gov- erning the award of the qualification that the qualification may be achieved in whole or in part through the recognition of prior learning, which concept includes but is not limited to learning outcomes achieved through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience (RSA, 1998a; regulation 8[1][h]). It will be necessary to spell out the criteria for awarding the qualification (or part of it) through RPL.

Requirement 13

ETQAs and providers of learning programmes leading to the achievement of the GETC should collaborate in formulating policies and devising criteria that allow learners to achieve whole or part qualifications through the recognition of prior learning.

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5   Issues of implementation

A number of issues have been raised in this document, which have different implications for the different sectors operating at the GETC level. The challenge will be for each of these sectors to find ways of implementing the requirements so as to achieve coherence in the design and construction of qualifications and in learning programme provision at level 1 of the NQF.

One of the key challenges facing all sectors is how to ensure the articulation of qualifications across the band. In this regard, the Department of Education will have to give further consideration to the articulation of its qualifications with those of the ABET and industrial sectors. The question it will need to address is: What kind of recognition will the statements of achievement given to learners who exit from the formal schooling system before the achievement of a GETC – that is, before Grade 9 – have in the ABET and industrial

sectors, and more broadly, in society at large?

Further design and implementation issues, which the Department of

Education will need to consider, are:

The relationship between the learning outcomes, assessment stan- dards and the exit-level outcomes which its qualifications are required to specify, and expected levels of performance (ELPs); and
The accumulation of credit below Grade 7, and the award of credit below Grade 9.
In terms of the IAAB submission (1999), the ABET sector will need to consider whether the range of elective unit standards available to the learner should be more narrowly defined and its relationship to the core unit standards more clearly explicated to ensure that its selec- tion contributes towards the achievement of the purpose of the quali- fication. This question of the composition of the core and elective components of qualifications, particularly the relationship between the two in terms of their contribution towards the achievement of the purpose of the qualification, is a matter for all sectors operating at the level. Further meetings of the GETC Stakeholder Forum will be held to ensure that the design of qualifications and their role will be co- ordinated in a systematic and coherent way.

However, in the absence of sound education, training and develop- ment, qualifications design and learning programme provision the best GETC design and GET provision in the world will not succeed in laying a firm foundation for personal and socio-economic develop- ment, which is an objective of the NQF. In other words, the quality of the educator/trainer, as well as education and training (both pre- service and in-service) will ultimately determine the success of NQF implementation and bring about the education and training transfor- mation, which South Africa seeks. In this regard, it is important that all role-players involved in GET provision liaise with the SGBs reg-

istered under NSB 05 [Education, Training and Development (ETD)]

One of the key challenges facing all sectors is how to ensure the articulation of qualifications across the band.

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to ensure that their interests are accommodated in qualifications design. They should also liaise with the ETQAs accredited to oversee the provision of learning programmes leading to the achievement of ETD qualifications to ensure that educators and trainers are well pre- pared to provide learning programmes leading to the GETC.

NQF

Level

Band

8

7

Higher Education and Training

6

5

Further Education and

4

Further Education and Training

3

2

General Education and

1                                              General Education  and Training

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6   Conclusion

It should be emphasised that one of the strengths of the SAQA sys- tem is that it is an open system, allowing flexibility for different bod- ies to put forward the qualifications that serve their needs. The regu- lations should not be restrictive and drive the system back towards closing pathways rather than opening up pathways. It must be remembered that access and portability exist in tension: as access is opened up and flexibility is prioritised, the portability of credits from one qualification to another becomes more limited. Conversely, the more portability of credits is emphasized, the more restrictive and less flexible access becomes. SAQA must ensure that the system does not become restrictive or create artificial barriers to viable pathways.

Careful consideration must be given to ways of bringing about systemic change. Even if SAQA accepts qualifications as proposed by different bodies, debated according to agreed principles, the real problem lies with society’s acceptance of their value. Consideration of more flexible organisational arrangements within the system are likely to have the effect of “loosening up” the system and encouraging life-long learning – for example, the semesterisation of learning and

assessment and the relaxing of group examination requirements.

Qualification Type

Post-doctoral research degrees
Doctorates
Masters degrees
Professional Qualifications
Honours degrees
National first degrees
Higher diplomas
National diplomas
National certificates
Training Certificate  (FETC)

National certificates

Training Certificate  (GETC)

Grade 9                                    ABET Level 4

National certificates

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Members of the GETC Stakeholder Forum

Mr. David Diale                      Department of Education

Ms. Ayesha Itzkin                   South African Certification Council

Ms. W.R. Kilfoil                      South African Universities

Vice-Chancellors Association

Ms. M. King                            Independent Examinations Board

Dr. L.P. Kriel                           Department of Education

Mr. S. Le Roux                        Project Literacy

Ms. S. Mokhobo-Nomvete      Department of Labour

M.E. Makgathe                        Department of Education

Ms. S. Müller                          National Professional Teachers’ Organisation of South Africa

Mr. R. Poliah                           South African Certification Council

Ms. J. Rabinowitz                   SACHED-ASECA (South African Committee on Higher Education – A Secondary Education Curriculum for Adults

Dr. Ramarumo                        Department of Education

Mrs. M. Samuels                     Department of Education

Ms. L. Scott                             Independent Examinations Board

Ms. Z.N. Sokopo                     Department of Education

Mr. Edcent Williams                Department of Education

Mr. J. Samuels                         South African Qualifications Authority

Ms. A. Oberholzer                  South African Qualifications Authority

SAQA acknowledges the considerable contribution of Mr Michael Cosser in the development of this policy document.

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References

Department  of  Education  (1997).  Policy  Document  on  Adult  Basic

Education & Training. Pretoria: Department of Education.

Department of Education (2000a). FET Curriculum Discussion Document.

Pretoria: Department of Education.

Department of Education (2000b). “Proposal to HEDCOM on: The General

Education and Training Certificate.” Pretoria: Department of Education.

IAAB  (1999).  “GETC  Proposal  for  ABET.”  Pretoria:  Department  of

Education.

IAAB (2000). “GETC Discussion: Comments from the IAAB, 31 October

2000.” Pretoria: Department of Education.

RSA (1995). “South African Qualifications Authority Act, 1995 (Act No. 58 of 1995).” Government Gazette No. 1521 (4 October). Pretoria: Government Printer.

RSA (1996). “Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act No. 108 of 1996).” Adopted on 8 May 1996; amended on

11 October 1996 by the Constitutional Assembly. Published at http://www.polity.org.za/govdocs/constitution/saconst.html.

RSA (1998a). “Regulations under the South African Qualifications Authority Act, 1995 (Act No. 58 of 1995).” Government Gazette No. 18787 (28 March). Pretoria: Government Printer.

RSA (1998b). “Regulations under the South African Qualifications Authority Act, 1995 (Act No. 58 of 1995).” Government Gazette No. 19231 (8 September). Pretoria: Government Printer.

SAFCERT (2000). “Submission on SAQA’s ‘Document for Submissions: GETC’.” Pretoria: South African Certification Council.

SAQA (1999). Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF Registered Unit Standards and Qualifications. Pretoria: South African Qualifications Authority.

SAQA   (2001).   FETC   Policy   Document.   Pretoria:   South   African

Qualifications Authority.

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Glossary

Access  refers to the provision of ease of entry to appropriate levels of edu- cation and training for all prospective learners in a manner which facilitates progression.

Accreditation  means the certification, usually for a particular period of time, of a person, a body or an institution as having the capacity to fulfil a particular function in the quality assurance system set up by the South African Qualifications Authority in terms of the SAQA Act.

Articulation   refers to provision for learners, on successful completion of accredited prerequisites, to move between components of the deli- very system.

Applied competence   means the ability to put into practice in the relevant context the learning outcomes acquired in obtaining a qualification.

Assessor  means the person who is registered by the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance body in accordance with criteria esta- blished for this purpose by a Standards Generating Body, to measure the achievement of specified National Qualifications Framework standards and qualifications.

Coherence  means to work within a consistent framework of principles and certification.

Core learning  refers to compulsory learning required in situations contex- tually relevant to the particular qualification.

Critical outcomes   means those generic outcomes that inform all teaching and learning.

Education  and Training Quality Assurance body  (ETQA)  means a body accredited in terms of section 5(1)(a)(ii) of the SAQA Act. The body is responsible for monitoring and auditing achievements in terms of national standards and qualifications and to which specific functions relating to the monitoring and auditing of national standards and qualifications have been assigned in terms of section 5(1)(b)(i) of the SAQA Act.

Elective learning   refers to a selection of additional credits at the level of the NQF specified from which a choice may be made to ensure that the purpose of the qualification is achieved.

Exit level outcomes   means the outcomes to be achieved by a qualifying learner at the point at which he or she leaves the programme leading to a qualification.

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Fundamental learning  refers to learning which forms the ground or basis needed to undertake the education, training or further learning required in obtaining a qualification.

Integrated  assessment  refers to that form of assessment that permits the learner to demonstrate applied competence and which uses a range of formative and summative assessment methods.

Learnership  refers to a learning programme where the learner spends some time learning theory and some time learning practical skills in a workplace. It leads to a qualification registered on the NQF.

Moderating body  means a body specifically appointed by the Authority for the purpose of moderation.

National Learners’ Record Database (NLRD) refers to an information sys- tem designed to facilitate the management of the NQF and enable SAQA to report accurately on most aspects of education and training in South Africa.

National Standards Body (NSB) refers to a body registered in terms of sec- tion 5(1)(a)(ii) of the SAQA Act. The body is responsible for esta- blishing education and training standards or qualifications, and to which specific functions relating to the registration of national stan- dards and qualifications have been assigned in terms of section

5(1)(b)(i) of the SAQA Act.

Organising field  means a particular area of learning used as an organising mechanism for the NQF.

Outcomes  means the contextually demonstrated end products of the lear- ning process.

Progression  means to ensure that the framework of qualification permits individuals to move through the levels of notional qualifications via different appropriate combinations of the competence of the deli- very system.

Primary  focus    means that activity or objective within the sector upon which an organisation or body concentrates its efforts.

Recognition  of prior learning (RPL)  refers to recognition within the final education and training framework of previous learning acquired in a variety of contexts either informally, non-formally, experientially or formally.

Standards Generating Body (SGB) refers to a body registered in terms of section 5(1)(a)(i) of the SAQA Act. The body is responsible for establishing education and training standards or qualifications, and to which specific functions relating to the establishment of national

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standards and qualifications have been assigned in terms of section

5(1)(b)(i) of the SAQA Act.

Unit standard  means registered statements of desired education and training outcomes and their associated assessment criteria together with administrative and other information as specified in these regulations.

Acronyms

ABET               Adult Basic Education and Training COSATU                        Congress of South African Trade Unions ELP                        Expected levels of performance

ETQA               Education and Training Quality Assurance Body

FETC               Further Education and Training Certificate GETC      General Education and Training Certificate HEDCOM            Heads of Education Departments Committee IAAB           Interim ABET Advisory Board

NLRD               National Learners’ Record Database NQF     National Qualifications Framework NSB        National Standards Body

RPL                 Recognition of prior learning SAFCERT        South African Certification Council SGB   Standards Generating Body

SMME              Small Medium and Micro Enterprises

32                                      A publication of the South African Qualifications Authority

THE SOCIAL PARTNERS OF SAQA

Minister of Education

Minister of Labour

SAQA

DoE

DoL

NSBs

NLRD

NSA

SGBs

CHE (HEQC) Proposed GENFETQA

ETQAs

ETQA-SETAs

Education and Training Providers

Professional

Bodies/Institutes

Learners

Funded by the European Union under the European Programme for Reconstruction and Development

ISBN: 0-620-28289-4
« Last Edit: December 03, 2015, 03:48:14 PM by ETQA Administrator »


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